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78                    LECTURES AND ESSAYS

important point is that science, though ap-
parently transformed into pure knowledge, has
yet never lost its character of being a craft;
and that it is not the knowledge itself which
can rightly be called science, but a special way
of getting and of using knowledge. Namely,
science is the getting of knowledge from experi-
ence on the assumption of uniformity in nature,
and the use of such knowledge to guide the
actions of men. And the most abstract state-
ments or propositions in science are to be re-
garded as bundles of hypothetical maxims
packed into a portable shape and size. Every
scientific fact is a shorthand expression for a
vast number of practical directions: if you
want so-and-so, do so-and-so.

If with this meaning of the word " Science,"
there is such a thing as a scientific basis of
Morals, it must be true that,

1,  The maxims of Ethic are hypothetical
maxims

2,  Derived from experience

3,  On the assumption of uniformity in nature.
These propositions  I shall now endeavour to
prove; and in conclusion, I shall indicate the
direction in which we may look for those general
statements   of   fact   whose   organisation   will
complete the likeness of ethical  and physical
science.